What is Internet of Things (IoT) and can I benefit from it?

IoT Concepts
Example of IoT ‘Things’ — Raspberry PI, ring cameras, electronic pacemakers, Apple watch, Tesla cars, connected pumps

More on connectivity…
Short range. For short-range wireless, we have Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), near-field communication (NFC), radio-frequency identification (RFID), Wi-Fi, ZigBee and Z-Wave.
Local area. For medium-range wireless, mobile networks and LTE-advanced while for long-range wireless, low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN), and very small aperture terminal (VSAT).
Wide area. Commonly used are wired technologies, including Ethernet (via twisted pair coppers or fiber optic links) in conjunction with hubs or switches. Or even using your home’s electrical power (HomePlugs, G.hn)

IoT Platform Reference Architecture

More on IoT architecture..
1. The edge. With the business case, you can figure our potential use cases for your edge devices and associated things. This will help you lead the charge and lay a solid foundation for future requirements.
2. Stream processing. IoT almost always co-exists with Big Data (and now AI is gaining popularity as well) because there is a huge ingress and egress of data in terms of volume, variety and velocity of data.
For example, take a single device that sends a message per minute. Extend that into 5000 devices (which is not unusual for a standard IoT deployment) means that we have 300,000 messages per hour! Be proactive in looking for opportunities to leverage analytics and Big Data.
3. Event processing and orchestration. This component consist of business logic and the company’s workflows. It entails core functionality to IT automation, and is the place where most optimization and analytics opportunities can help
(i.e., ticketing systems, operations monitoring, technical dispatching system, air traffic control, and others)
4. Application and system integration. Because IoT focuses on driving action and interaction between enterprise applications and the physical world, integration with enterprise systems is essential. It connects internal systems to one another, to client systems and to third-party service providers.
What is an API? Application programming interface, allows disparate systems to transmit data over an agreed protocol and standard (API document) Google / Apple — Weather information or Stock trade information

Garner (2016) IoT Reference Architecture
Microsoft Azure IoT Architecture

Device Layer — This layer addresses information security that can be implemented on the IoT device itself. Controls can range from simple features, such as password protection to advanced protection such as encryption.
example: camera password credentials

Communication Layer — This layer addresses all information security controls that can be implemented through the network, such as network segregation, access control, logging and monitoring.
example: Admin / management traffic vs customer / user traffic for security reasons, QoS management

Application Layer — This layer addresses all information security controls that can be provided by an application such as user identification and authentication, application access control or integrity checks.
example: Is the user who he says he really is (Authentication)? Does he have permissions to perform various actions (Authorization)?

Mandatory Controls include required checks before deployment. Company or client compliance for development and procurement. For example: device licenses, software licenses, infrastructure certifications, and others.

Local and International Regulations include Information Security Management (ISO/IEC 27001) and General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)



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